The special association of speech and sound with eternal reality or truth is reflected in other usages that became standard in many sectors of classical and later Hindu culture. Apart from these differences, one needs to consider the other factors that affect the curricula and daily schedule of these schools. Therefore, this book also aims to present different models under which the Vedic schools are organized in contemporary Maharashtra, and analyze: The skin of a black deer is considered more auspicious than that of a spotted one, but both are considerably more prestigious than the use of a plastic mat. Sometimes, he chooses two students to recite the same portion together, alternating the pairs. Sringeri is located in the state of Karnataka, and Kanchipuram in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu.
Nonetheless, as will be shown below, formal examinations have increasingly become a crucial element in the education of the vaidikas of Maharashtra in recent years. Traditionally, the guru teaches new chapters for a period of ten consecutive days, as illustrated in the above example. The external student came from a Vedic school in Tamil Nadu, who at the time had a day vacation, which he spent with his family in Mumbai. If there is thunder before midnight, the suspension lasts for the whole night; if it happens during the day, the suspension lasts throughout the daylight hours, as also when the king of that realm dies, and when one student goes on a journey and another stays behind with the teacher. But this method is only preparatory and is necessarily followed by the study of grammar and logic which will eventually explain and enlighten the memorized texts. The total marks are for the partial exam and for the complete exam. The student does not speak while the recitation is going on, but signals his desire to go to the bathroom, sometimes by using the pan-Indian signal of raising the pinky finger. The pupils will also consider the wife of the guru as their own mother.
Hindu King in Islamic India, esp. Usually, the students are not examined by their own teacher. This kind of memorization appears to be unique in the world, and must be strictly distinguished from other forms of memorization. Three students have taken their places and set up the texts to recite in front of them.
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Over last century, particularly in Maharashtra, formal examination procedures have become increasingly institutionalized. For instance, consider this hypothetical case: When there is lightning during the night, moreover, the suspension lasts until the last watch of the night; but if it occurs during or after the third part of the day, the suspension lasts the whole night.
In such a session, the teacher guru is physically present to impart a given portion of the text to be learned on the given day.
These students must adhere to the curricular standards of such secular institutions. Some agnkhotra appear to be deliberately composed in a way that helps with memorization.
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At times, one or more students may have some problems with the memorization or correct pronunciation of the passage. Students are rarely encouraged to fast completely by drinking only water, since food is considered vital for concentration.
Usually, teachers are called in as employees once the project has been conceived or is nearing completion. Brahmins studied grammar after their initiation ceremony. Hinduism is the religion of those humans who create, perpetuate, and transform traditions with legitimizing reference to the authority of the Veda.
But this method is only preparatory and is necessarily followed by the study of grammar and logic which will eventually explain and agnihootra the memorized texts. While students may have their own personal mat and never share their seat with other fellow students, in many schools, the sitting mats particularly plastic ones are interchangeable. In exchange for this aid, the teacher of the school asked the villagers to come once a month to sing and dance devotional songs in their repertoire on the premises of the school, agnihofra which the villagers happily agreed.
The use of the printed texts is not even remotely close to that of the role textbooks have in regular secular schools. The picture portrayed by the report was agnihotrx of a dilapidated tradition on the verge of extinction. Next, my gratitude goes to my parents: Had they understood what they were learning by heart, the inference-drawing level of angihotra comprehension would have been activated and would have influenced the way in which the text was stored in their memory.
In this exercise, the dynamics of the recitation are different. For a comparative list of recurring topics in which several textual sources are used see for example: The rapid urbanization of the last few decades has often drastically agnihottra the surrounding areas of these schools. Another basic idea of Swadhyay is that bhakti devotion is not strictly an introverted activity; rather, it is agnkhotra a social force. General Contexts moral, legal, esthetic and other cultural norms.
When these happen during the rainy season, however, the suspension lasts only that day. The notation serves the music student in learning agnihotga piece, but the goal is to internalize the musical piece by heart so that he can produce a unique interpretation. Depending on the capacity of the students, the guru may ask for a different random portion of the text. Sometimes, if the guru is absent for longer periods throughout the day, the students are asked to memorize the lessons learned so far with him through self-study.
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Episodde is pertinent to note that this mode mainly references the physical storage of the written text. Arnold ; Oldenberg ; Winternitz It is not uncommon to see these traditional schools emerge and disappear in the course of only a couple of years. Non-English words are marked in italics, except for names, primary sources, and places.